NBER has arranged a subscription to ORBIS for its members. Please see slides for details. The list of datasets available through this initiative is here. Please contact Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan should you have any questions.

Data Made Available by Researchers

All data sources are provided as is. See the cited paper or reference for details. Please cite the appropriate paper when using these data. There is no informational support, nor support of any other type, for the use of these data by the NBER nor by the researchers who are making the data available.

Capital controls and macroprudential . Exchange rate regimes . Financial crises . Fiscal data .  Bank ownership . International price data .  Internatinonal capital flows and interest parity .  Financial Development and Central Banking

Andy Rose provides data for most of his papers on his research page . Please cite appropriate papers if using the data.

Capital Controls and macroprudential

Joshua Aizenman, Menzie Chinn, and Hiro Ito. Annual indicators to quantify the degree of achievement along the three dimensions of the "trilemma" hypothesis: monetary independence, exchange rate stability, and financial openness, for more than 170 countries from 1970 through 2014. All materials can be found here. Also availale are replication files . Please Cite, as original source, Joshua Aizenman, Menzie D. Chinn and Hiro Ito (2010). "The Emerging Global Financial Architecture: Tracing and Evaluating the New Patterns of the Trilemma's Configurations," Journal of International Money and Finance, Vol. 29, No. 4, p. 615-641.

Menzie Chinn and Hiro Ito. Annual indicator of capital account openness, a de jure measure for 182 countries, 1970 - 2012. All materials can be found here . Please Cite, as original source, Menzie D. Chinn and Hiro Ito (2006). "What Matters for Financial Development? Capital Controls, Institutions, and Interactions," Journal of Development Economics, Volume 81, Issue 1, Pages 163-192 (October).

Andrés Fernández, Michael Klein, Alessandro Rebucci, Martin Schindler and Martín Uribe. Separate annual indicators of controls on inflows and controlson outflows for 10 categories of assets for 100 countries, 1995 - 2013. Slides with description, paper, as well as Excel and Stata datasets are available on Uribe's page. Please cite Andrés Fernández, Michael Klein, Alessandro Rebucci, Martin Schindler and Martín Uribe, "Capital Controls Measures: A New Dataset," IMF Economic Review, vol. 64(3), pages 548-574, August 2016.

Gurnain K. Pasricha, Matteo Falagiarda, Martin Bijsterbosch, Joshua Aizenman. Quarterly indicators of the number of capital flow management measures in 18 emerging market economies, 2001Q1-2015Q4. Includes both policy actions on capital controls and currency-based measures. Separate unweighted and weighted indices. Separate indices for inflow easing, inflow tightening, outflow easing and outflow tightening. Separate indices for policy actions on all types of flows, and for policy actions on non-FDI flows. Excel file and technical appendix . Presentation slides. Please cite: Pasricha, G.K., Falagiarda, M., Bijsterbosch, M. & Aizenman, J. (2015), "Domestic and Multilateral Effects of Capital Controls in Emerging Markets", NBER Working Paper No. 20822. Updated in Pasricha, G.K. (2017) "Policy Rules for Capital Controls" Bank of Canada Staff Working Paper No. 2017-42.

Ilhyock Shim, Bilyana Bogdanova, Jimmy Shek and Agne Subelyte. Monthly indicators and detailed description of nine types of non-interest rate policy actions (in total, 1,111 actions) affecting housing markets for 60 economies from January 1980 (or earliest date available) to June 2012. Article with description . Excel file . Please cite, as original source, Ilhyock Shim, Bilyana Bogdanova, Jimmy Shek and Agne Subelyte, "Database for policy actions on housing markets,” BIS Quarterly Review, September 2013, pp 83–95; and Kenneth N Kuttner and Ilhyock Shim (2016) "Can non-interest rate policies stabilize housing markets? Evidence from a panel of 57 economies," Journal of Financial Stability, 56, 31-44, which uses the dataset.

Eugenio Cerutti, Ricardo Correa, Elisabetta Fiorentino, and Esther Segalla. Quarterly indicators of changes in the intensity of usage of several widely used macroprudential instruments, covering 64 countries during 2000Q1 to 2014Q4. Slides with description. Stata file. Excel file with dataset and documentation. Please Cite, as original source, Cerutti, E., R. Correa, E. Fiorentino, and E. Segalla (2017), "Changes in Prudential Policy Instruments - A New Cross-Country Database," International Journal of Central Banking, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 477-503 (March).

Exchange Rate Regimes

Jay Shambaugh. Exchange rate regime data (peg, non-peg, soft peg, relevant base country), de facto indicators for 177 countries, 1960 2014,. Description (pdf). Data (.dta). Please cite, as original source, Jay C. Shambaugh (2004). The Effect of Fixed Exchange Rates on Monetary Policy, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Volume 119, no. 1, Pages 301 352 (February).

Financial crises

Beatrice Scheubel and Livio Stracca. Global Financial Safety Net (GFSN) data base. Measures included: (i) own foreign exchange reserves, (ii) IMF loan facilities, (iii) regional financing arrangements (RFAs), (iv) central bank swap lines. The data covers the existing access to the GFSN of over 150 countries annually, together with a comprehensive list of variables that may be useful to understand financial integration and the role of the GFSN in supporting it, including crisis episodes, a measure of private capital flows, and measures of capital flow reversals for a subset of countries. The dataset covers at a maximum the years 1960-2014. Slides with description. Please cite Scheubel and Stracca, 2016, “What do we know about the global financial safety net? Rationale, data and possible evolution," ECB Occasional Paper No. 177.

Galina Hale. Dates of sovereign debt restructuring and dates on which negotiations leading up to these restructurings began. Emerging markets, 1980-2002. PDF file , Stata file . Please cite Carlos Arteta and Galina Hale (2008) "Sovereign debt crises and credit to the private sector," Journal oInternational Economics, 74(1), p. 53-69.

Luc Laeven and Fabián Valencia. Comprehensive list of banking crisis dates for the period 1970-2013 together with information on fiscal costs and output losses following these banking crises and information on policy responses (including liquidity support, recapitalizations, asset purchases, and guarantees). Detailed description of variable definitions and sources to be found in accompanying paper: Luc Laeven and Fabián Valencia (2013) "Systemic Banking Crises Database" IMF Economic Review 61, 225-270. Please cite this paper if using the data. Excel file.

Fiscal Data

Carlos A. Vegh and Guillermo Vuletin. Database on tax rates (value-added, corporate income, and personal income tax rates) for 76 countries, 1960-2017. Paper and dataset. Please cite, as original source, Carlos Vegh and Guillermo Vuletin (2015). “How is tax policy conducted over the business cycle?” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, Vol 7 (August), pp. 327-370. Complementary papers related to fiscal measurement and identification issues are available on Vuletin’s website.

Kose A., S. Kurlat, F. Ohnsorge, N. Sugawara. A comprehensive cross-country database of fiscal space. The database covers up to 200 countries over the period 1990-2016, and includes 28 indicators of fiscal space grouped into four categories: Government debt sustainability; Balance sheet composition; External and private sector debt; Market access. For additional information, links to Excel and Stata files, and citation information, see the World Bank page.

Bank Ownership

Stijn Claessens and Neeltje van Horen. Full ownership information over the period 1995-2013 for 5,498 banks active in 138 host countries, including for each bank year of establishment, year of inactivity, ownership (foreign or domestic) and if foreign owned the home country of the majority shareholder. Database is linked to Bankscope for balance sheet information. Slides with description. Please cite Claessens and Van Horen (forthcoming), "The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Banking Globalization," IMF Economic Review. Paper and data.

International price data

The Billion Prices Project periodically shares micro-price databases that can be used for academic research.
See the BPP Data page for a list of databases that are publicly available at this time. Slides with description. 

The Center for International Price Research posts public archives of historical international price data. These data are absolute, local currency, retail prices (not index numbers) by city as often used by statistical agencies in the construction of their aggregate CPI indices. We welcome contributions of similar international micro-price archives by other researchers. Presentation slides. Data archives.

Ambrogio Cesa-Bianchi, Luis Felipe Cespedes, and Alessandro Rebucci. Quarterly real house price indices for 57 countries with time-varying coverage from 1970:Q1 to 2012:Q4. The data set can be found on Ambrogio Cesa-Bianchi's website, at the following link. Please Cite, as original source, Cesa-Bianchi, A., L.F. Cespedes, and A. Rebucci, (2015). "Global Liquidity, House Prices, and the Macroeconomy: Evidence from Advanced and Emerging Economies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 47, Issue S1, No. 1 (March-April 2015).

International capital flows and interest parity

Matteo Maggiori, Brent Neiman, and Jesse Schreger. The Global Capital Allocation Project website contains data and codes for firm level security aggregation, cross border reclassification of firms based on nationality, and capital flow data.

Laura Alfaro, Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, and Vadim Volosovych. International Capital Flows Database. Measures of net public and private capital flows for a large corss-section of developing countries, considering both creditor and debtor side of the international debt transactions.  Includes FDI, portfolio equity, and debt. 1970-2013. See page for description and data download.   Plesase cite Alfaro et al., 2014, "Sovereigns, Upstream Capital Flows and Global Imbalances," Journal of European Economic Association, 22(5), 1240-1284.

Wenxin Du, Joanne Im, and Jesse Schreger. CIP Deviations between Government Bonds. This dataset measures covered interest rate parity deviations between government bond yields. In supplemental material, we outline how to download all of the raw data to construct the different components of the measure. We discuss how this measure can be used to quantify local currency sovereign credit spreads and convenience yields on government bonds. Data and documentation. Please cite as original source: Du, Wenxin and Jesse Schreger (2016). "Local Currency Sovereign Risk." Journal of Finance, 71, 1027-1070; Du, Wenxin, Joanne Im, and Jesse Schreger (2018). "The U.S. Treasury Premium." Journal of International Economics, 112. 167-181.

Philip Lane and Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti. External Wealth of Nations (EWN) updated data on external assets and liabilites for over 210 economies for 1970-2015. Data. Please cite Gian M Milesi-Ferretti and Philip R. Lane "International Financial Integration in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis," IMF WP115, 2017.

Financial Development and Central Banking

Katsiaryna Svirydzenka. Annual indices that summarize how developed financial institutions and financial markets are in terms of their depth, access, and efficiency and aggregate indices of financial institutions development, financial markets development, and the overall level of financial development for 183 countries, 1980-2013. Data. Please cite Katsiaryna Svirydzenka (2016). "Introducing a New Broad-based Index of Financial Development." IMF Working Paper 16/5. Washington: International Monetary Fund (January).

Carola Binder. Quarterly balanced panel dataset of political pressure on 118 central banks from 2010Q1 through 2019Q1, constructed using a narrative approach, by hand-coding reports from Business Monitor International and Economist Intelligence Unit. The updated data in Stata and Excel formats are here. Please cite Carola Binder (2019) "Political Pressure on Central Banks."

Trade in Services

Prakash Loungani, Saurabh Mishra, Chris Papageorgiou and Ke Wang. Newly constructed dataset on trade in services for 192 countries from 1970 to 2014, broken down into one- and two-digit disaggregation resulting in as many as 27 services export sectors. Data, sources, descriptions, and other related material can be found here. Presentation slides. Please cite, Prakash Loungani, Saurabh Mishra, Chris Papageorgiou and Ke Wang, “World Trade in Services: Evidence from A New Dataset,” IMF Working Paper 17/77.

Data from official sources

See Data Descriptions for information about accessing data sets

International asset flows and positions:

BIS International Banking statistics: data description by Galina Hale (pptx)
IMF Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey (CPIS): data description by Stephanie Curcuru
BIS Triennial Central Bank Survey on FX and derivatives markets: data description by Andreas Schrimpf. Data .

Bank data

Federal Reserve International Banking data sources: introduction by Linda Goldberg
The Bundesbank’s Research Data and Service Center: description by Stephan Bender, Claudia M. Buch, and Marin Eisele; 2019 Update by Jens Orben and slides.

Data from commercial sources

Note: these data typically require a subscription and are not available for free. See data description for details.

International asset flows and positions:

Emerging Portfolio Fund Research, Inc: data description by Stephanie Curcuru

Firm-level data

Balance sheet and income statements data from ORBIS/AMADEUS Database: data description by Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan  and  NBER working paper by Kalemli-Ozcan et al. (2015)

Other archives

See descriptions for accessing data

Historical series

Historical Financial Statistics is a free, noncommercial data set offered by the Center for Financial Stability. Coverage includes exchange rates, central bank and commercial bank balance sheets, interest rates, money supply, inflation, international trade, government finance, national accounts, and more. The focus is data from roughly 1500 to 1950, although it has earlier and later data.

Firm-level data initiatives

ECB CompNet project: introduction by Filippo di Mauro

Data- and idea-sharing pages

DBnomics: The world's economic database is a free platform, developed by the CEPREMAP (French research center), that aggregates publicly-available economic data released by national and international statistical institutions. It includes more than 70 billions series from different providers such as BIS, ECB, Eurostat, INSEE, IMF, ESRI (Japan), Federal Reserve, OECD, World Bank, US BEA, with the purpose of simplifying retrieval of economic data and allowing reproducible results. All the codes are free. Examples of use. Presentation slides.

Halle Institute for Economic Research International Banking Library: description by Lena Tonzer

If you would like to contribute a data set or data description to this page, please e-mail your proposal to Galina Hale and Michael Klein

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